Table 2.

Growth inhibition of PC3 and MDA-MB-468 cells in 2D and 3D growth following treatment with inhibitors against metabolic enzymes PDHK, ACC, FASN, and DGAT, and kinases PI3K, AKT, and mTOR

Prostate cancer (PC3)Breast cancer (MDA-MB-468)
TypeEnzyme target2D3D2D3D
Metabolic targetsFASNN = 26 μmol/L7.2 μmol/LN = 19 μmol/L17 μmol/L
H = 84 μmol/LH = 22 μmol/L
ACCN = NC11 μmol/LN = NCNC
H = 11 μmol/LH = 60 μmol/L
DGATN = NC46 μmol/LN = NCNC
H = NCH = NC
PDHKN = 54 μmol/LNCN = 17 μmol/L5.4 μmol/L
H = NCH = 46 μmol/L
Kinase targetsPan PI3KN = 0.1 μmol/L0.02 μmol/LN = 0.2 μmol/L0.14 μmol/L
H = 0.2 μmol/LH = 0.3 μmol/L
AKTN = 20 μmol/L0.36 μmol/LN = 8.3 μmol/L0.17 μmol/L
H = 29 μmol/LH = 8.6 μmol/L
mTORN = 0.8 μmol/L0.1 μmol/LN = 1 μmol/L0.12 μmol/L
H = 0.7 μmol/LH = 1.4 μmol/L
  • NOTE: In 2D growth, cells were incubated under normoxia (N) and hypoxia (H). Results are shown as concentration of the drug that inhibited 50% growth (growth inhibition 50%—GI50), calculated using GraphPrism nonlinear regression (curve fit).

  • Abbreviation: NC, not calculated due to poor curve fit or no loss in cell viability with highest concentration.