Table 1.

Preclinical and ongoing clinical studies using the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine and hydroxychloroguine in cancer treatment

Tumor typeDevelopment statusTherapeutic combination
Colorectal cancerIn vitro, in vivoCQ + bortezomib (63)
CQ + vorinostat (56)
Phase IIHCQ + XELOX + bevacizumab
Gastrointestinal stromal tumorIn vitro, in vivoCQ + imatinib (75)
Prostate cancerIn vitro, in vivoCQ + Src kinase inhibitors (57)
Vulvar cancerIn vitroCQ + cetuximab (34)
Chronic myelogenous leukemiaIn vitroCQ + vorinostat (73)
Phase IIHCQ + imatinib
LymphomaIn vivoCQ + cyclophosphamide (27)
Pancreatic cancerPhase IIHCQ only
Phase I/IIHCQ + gemcitabine
Prostate cancerPhase IIHCQ + docetaxel
Lung cancerPhase IIHCQ + erlotinib
Glioblastoma multiformePhase I/IIHCQ + temozolomide + radiation
Multiple myelomaPhase I/IIHCQ + bortezomib
Renal cell carcinomaPhase IHCQ only
Breast cancerPhase IIHCQ only
Chronic lymphocytic leukemiaPhase IIHCQ only
Advanced solid tumorPhase IHCQ + sirolimus or vorinostat
Phase IHCQ + temsirolimus
Phase IHCQ + sunitinib
Phase IHCQ + temozolomide

Abbreviations: CQ, chloroquine; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine.