Table 1.

Immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines are elaborated by glioma cell lines and glioma-associated cancer-initiating cells

SourceCytokine (pg/mL)
TGF-β1VEGFIL-6PGE2CCL-2FasIL-10Galectin-3
U-872,4733,92043,5682314,40100467
U-2511,5971,708708010,58600175
Cancer-initiating cells (n = 4)76 (38.5–118)49 (22–98)075 (54–95)457 (12.8–1,134)002,440 (1,645–3,183)

NOTE: For U-87 and U-251, the values are actual values from one experiment, whereas cancer-initiating cell values are means with ranges.

Abbreviations: VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; CCL-2, chemokine C-C motif-2.