Table 1.

Summary of previous studies on racial disparity of mortality and treatment outcome in cancer

Cancer typeTreatmentEthnic groups (no. samples)Major findingsOR (95% CI)/PRef.
Breast cancerNot definedAA* (185) and EA (10,937)Overall survival significantly favored EAs2.27 (1.82-2.84)(46)
Surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapyAA (771) and EA (5,651)Increased risk of death in AA patients1.57 (1.18-2.10)*(47)
Surgery, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracilAA (543) and EA (7,582)Increased death in AA patients1.21 (1.01-1.46)(48)
1.18 (1.03-1.34)
Prostate cancerOrchiectomy or LHRH analogue therapyAA (55) and EA (90)No difference(49)
Surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and othersAA (14,307) and EA (108,067)Increased risk of death in AA patients1.61 (1.50-1.72)§(50)
0.99 (0.92-1.06)
Lung cancerNot definedAA and EA, numbers not definedLower 5-y survival rate in AA patients≤0.0001(51)
Colorectal cancerSurgeryAA (199) and EA (292)Lower 5- and 10-y survival rate in AA1.67 (1.21-2.33)(26)
1.52 (1.12-2.07)**
Rectal cancerMethyl-lomustine, vincristine, fluorouracil, leucovorin, and/or radiation therapy after surgeryAA (104) and EA (1,070)Higher mortality in AA patients1.45 (1.09-1.93)(52)
Colon cancerNot definedAA (454) and EA (521)Higher risk of death among AA patients after adjusted for stage1.2 (1.1-1.5)(53)
  • * Breast cancer–specific survival adjusted for tumor characteristics and major treatments.

  • Lymph node–negative disease.

  • Lymph node–positive disease.

  • § Adjusted only for age.

  • Adjusted for stage, treatment, grade, socioeconomic status, and year of diagnosis.

  • Within 5 y of surgery.

  • ** Within 10 y of surgery.