Table 1.

Agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1990 and 2005 with a response rate of >70%

AgentYearCancer indicationMolecular hallmarkReference
Pentostatin1991Hairy cell leukemiaPrimary oncogenic event unknown(12, 16, 17, 33)
Cladribine1993(19, 20, 30, 31)
Idarubicin1990Acute promyelocytic leukemiaPML/RAR-α protein(13, 20, 22)
All-trans retinoic acid1995(14, 15, 23, 24)
Arsenic trioxide2000(21)
Imatinib mesylate2001Chronic myelogenous leukemia (chronic phase)Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase(5, 79)
Imatinib mesylate2002Gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST)Activating mutation in KIT or PDGFR-α gene(4, 5)
Lenalidomide2005del(5q31) myelodysplastic syndromePrimary oncogenic event unknown(10, 11)
  • Abbreviations: PML, promyelocytic leukemia; RAR-α, retinoic acid receptor α.