Table 1.

Molecular alterations frequently detected in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Alteration frequency (%)
Oncogenes (amplification or mutation)
    K-ras75–100
    c-erb-360–70
    c-erb-2 (HER-2/neu)10–20
Tumor suppressor genes (mutations or deletions)
    TP5350–75
    p16INK480–95
    Rb60–70
    DPC450–55
Growth factors and their receptors (amplification or mutations)
    FGF60–90
    FGFR50–70
    EGFR25–65
    TGFβ40–50