Table 2.

PRL expression in tumor tissues and cell lines

        Cell lines5 of 6 showed elevated expressionQuantitative PCR(9)
    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
        Cell linesHigh expression relative to normalcDNA microarray(26)
        Cell linesOverexpression in LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 cellsReverse transcription-PCR(27)
        Patient tumors2 of 3 samples showed overexpressionReverse transcription-PCR(27)
        Invasive tumor vasculatureExpression in vasculature but not in tumorSerial analysis of gene expression(25)
        Cancer metastasesExpressed at high levels in 18 of 18 samplesSerial analysis of gene expression(21)
        Normal epitheliaNot expressedIn situ hybridization(22)
        Nonmetastatic carcinomaNot expressedIn situ hybridization(22)
        Carcinoma metastasesExpressed in 86–100% of samples (depending on site)In situ hybridization(22)
        Primary tumorsExpressed at high levels in 44.6% of samplesIn situ hybridization(37)
        Primary tumors with metastasesExpressed at high levels in 51.8–88.9% of samples (varies by site)In situ hybridization(37)
        Carcinoma metastasesExpressed at high levels in 47.5–100% of samplesIn situ hybridization(37)
        Normal epitheliaExpressed in 7.1% of samplesImmunohistochemistry(50)
        Primary tumorsExpressed in 23.9% of samplesImmunohistochemistry(50)
        Carcinoma metastasesExpressed in 53.7–66.7% of samplesImmunohistochemistry(50)
        Cell linesExpressed in 87.5% of cell lines testedReverse transcription-PCR(51)
        Primary carcinoma without nodal metastasisExpressed in 50% of samplesReverse transcription-PCR(51)
        Primary carcinoma with nodal metastasisExpressed in 81.5% of samplesReverse transcription-PCR(51)
        Carcinoma samplesOverexpressed in all 27 samples testedNorthern(24)