Table 4

Changes in iNOS expression/activity during tumor development in humans

TargetiNOS expression/activityaiNOS effect on neoplasia (↑/↓)bRef. no.
Colon↓Expression ACF; not associated degree of dysplasia in ACF24
↓Expression carcinoma
↓Expression/activity adenoma, carcinoma23
↑Activity adenoma; ↓activity correlates with ↑ Dukes stage, lowest metastases↑ (early)/↓ (late)22 and 90
↑Expression carcinoma20
↓Expression correlates with ↑ Dukes stage↓ (late)91
↑Expression cancer; no correlation with clinicopathological findings except vascular invasion21
Breast↑Expression hyperplasia↑/↓ (?)27
↓DCIS, invasive cancer compared with hyperplasia (↑ compared normal tissue)
↑Expression correlates with ↑DCIS grade, further ↑ in cancer25
↑Expression metastases; no correlation with tumor grade28
↑Expression benign disease to grade II carcinoma, ↓ grade III carcinoma↑/↓ (late)26
↑Total NOS activity cancer;↑/↓29
↓Total NOS activity correlates with ↑ proliferation, high tumor grade
↑Total NOS activity cancer; activity correlates with tumor grade30
Prostate↑Expression high-grade PIN, cancer compared with low-grade PIN, BPHc36
↑Expression cancer31
↑Expression cancer32
↑Expression cancer33
↑Expression cancer34
Bladder↑Expression dysplasia, cancer38
↑Expression cancer37
↑Expression cancer39
↑Expression cancer40
Skin (melanoma)↑Expression during progression41
↓Expression correlates with metastases↓ (late)43
↓Expression correlates with poor survival↑ (late)42
Skin (basal cell carcinoma)↓Expression cancer↓(associated with lack of aggressiveness?)46
Skin (squamous cell carcinoma)↑Expression in cancer45
Oral cavity↑Expression correlates with severity of dysplasia47 and 48
Head and neck↑Activity cancer; activity correlates with angiogenesis and metastases51
Esophagus↑Expression Barrett’s esophagus, adenocarcinoma52
↑Expression esopageal squamous cell carcinomas, early-stage mucosal squamous cell cancer53
Lung↑Expression in NSCLC correlates with VEGF, angiogenesis92
Gastric↑Expression cancer, no correlation with inflammation, clinicopathological features93
↑Expression cancer94
↑Expression cancer95
↑Nitrotyrosine cancer
↓Expression cancer96
  • a Compared with normal/normal-appearing tissue unless indicated otherwise.

  • b iNOS expression has promoting (↑) or inhibitory (↓) effect on neoplasia.

  • c BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.