Table 2.

Growth factors elaborated by fibroblasts at the tumor-stroma interface

Growth factorExpressing cellsResponding cellsFunctional role
TGFβ-1,2,3FibroblastsEpithelia, fibroblasts+Proliferation +Morphogenic
FGF-2FibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Transformation
FGF-7/KGFFibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Morphogenic
FGF-10FibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation
HGFFibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Transformation +Morphogenic
IGF-1,2FibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation
CXCL12FibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Transformation
Wnt-1,3FibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Transformation
IL-6, LIF, oncostatin MFibroblastsEpithelia+Proliferation +Transformation
NGFFibroblastsEpithelia+Transformation
  • Abbreviations: IGF, insulin-like growth factor; KGF, keratinocyte growth factor; NGF, nerve growth factor; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor.