Table 2

Anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in animal studiesa

Target organLigandResultsCommentsReference
Mammary glandGW 7845Prevented MNU-induced tumor development in ratsAdditive effects with tamoxifen; no increase in body weight noted[21]
TroglitazonePrevented DMBA-induced preneoplastic lesions in mouse mammary organ cultureSignificant synergistic effects with RXR ligand[22]
TroglitazoneInhibited growth of human breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice[20]
ColonTroglitazoneInhibited growth of human colon carcinoma cells in immunodeficient mice[8]
TroglitazonePrevented development of AOM- and AOM/DSS-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats[10]
PioglitazonePrevented development of AOM/DSS-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats[10]
ProstateTroglitazoneInhibited growth of human prostate cancer cells in immunodeficient miceNo additive effects with ATRA; necrotic and apoptotic changes noted. Similar changes, associated with troglitazone treatment of primary prostate tumors cultured in vitro[24]
  • a MNU, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; AOM, azoxymethane; DSS, dextran sodium sulfate; ATRA, all-trans-retinoic acid.