Doxorubicin is one of the leading drugs for osteosarcoma standard chemotherapy. A total of 40% to 45% of high-grade osteosarcoma patients are unresponsive, or only partially responsive, to doxorubicin (Dox), due to the overexpression of the drug efflux transporter ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (Pgp). The aim of this work is to improve Dox-based regimens in resistant osteosarcomas. We used a chemically modified mitochondria-targeted Dox (mtDox) against Pgp-overexpressing osteosarcomas with increased resistance to Dox. Unlike Dox, mtDox accumulated at significant levels intracellularly, exerted cytotoxic activity, and induced necrotic and immunogenic cell death in Dox-resistant/Pgp-overexpressing cells, fully reproducing the activities exerted by anthracyclines in drug-sensitive tumors. mtDox reduced tumor growth and cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, primed tumor cells for recognition by the host immune system, and was less cardiotoxic than Dox in preclinical models of drug-resistant osteosarcoma. The increase in Dox resistance was paralleled by a progressive upregulation of mitochondrial metabolism. By widely modulating the expression of mitochondria-related genes, mtDox decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, the import of proteins and metabolites within mitochondria, mitochondrial metabolism, and the synthesis of ATP. These events were paralleled by increased reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial depolarization, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in resistant osteosarcoma cells, where Dox was completely ineffective. We propose mtDox as a new effective agent with a safer toxicity profile compared with Dox that may be effective for the treatment of Dox-resistant/Pgp-positive osteosarcoma patients, who strongly need alternative and innovative treatment strategies. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 1–13. ©2016 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Molecular Cancer Therapeutics Online (http://mct.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received February 1, 2016.
- Revision received June 10, 2016.
- Accepted June 23, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.