Although treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) has improved over the past several years, taxanes such as cabazitaxel remain the only form of effective chemotherapy that improves survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant PCa. However, the effectiveness of this class of drugs has been associated with various side effects and drug resistance. We previously reported that fisetin, a hydroxyflavone, is a microtubule stabilizing agent and inhibits PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and suggested its use as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin in combination with cabazitaxel with the objective to achieve maximum therapeutic benefit, reduce dose and toxicity and minimize or delay the induction of drug resistance and metastasis. Our data show for the first time that a combination of fisetin (20 μM) enhances cabazitaxel (5nM) and synergistically reduces 22Rν1, PC-3M-luc-6, and C4-2 cell viability and metastatic properties with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. In addition, the combination of fisetin with cabazitaxel was associated with inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. Furthermore, combination treatment resulted in inhibition of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis when assessed in two in-vivo xenograft mouse models. These results provide evidence that fisetin may have therapeutic benefit for patients with advanced PCa through enhancing the efficacy of cabazitaxel under both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent conditions. This study underscores the benefit of the combination of fisetin with cabazitaxel for the treatment of advanced and resistant PCa and possibly other cancer types.
- Received August 3, 2016.
- Revision received September 19, 2016.
- Accepted September 20, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.