Chemotherapeutic resistance remains a challenge in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma, especially in recurrent disease. Despite the fact that most patients with newly diagnosed tumors attain complete remission following cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy, ovarian carcinoma has a recurrence rate that exceeds 75%. The ATP Binding Cassette family G member 2 (ABCG2) efflux protein has been described as one mechanism that confers multiple drug resistance (MDR) to solid tumors and contributes to topotecan (TPT) resistance in ovarian carcinoma. In fact, one clinical trial demonstrated ABCG2 expression in all patients with primary or recurrent ovarian carcinoma. On the basis of our previous work, we hypothesized that three compounds (CID44640177, CID1434724, and CID46245505), which represent a new piperazine-substituted pyrazolo[1,5]pyrimidine substructure class of ABCG2-specific antagonists, would restore chemosensitivity to drug-resistant ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. In order to address the treatment difficulties associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer, we combined each compound (CID44640177, CID1434724, and CID46245505) with TPT and administered the mixture to chemoresistant Igrov1/T8 ovarian cancer cells in vitro and Igrov1/T8 xenografts in CB-17 SCID mice. We found that only nanomolar concentrations of each ABCG2-inhibitor in combination with TPT were required to restore chemosensitivity to Igrov1/T8 cells in vitro. In vivo, substantial tumor reduction was achieved with each compound in 4 days, with CID1434724 causing the largest reduction in excess of 60%. No signs of secondary toxic effects were observed with the ABCG2 antagonists. These novel compounds should be viewed as promising drug candidates to reverse ABCG2-mediated chemoresistance.
- Received September 29, 2015.
- Revision received August 17, 2016.
- Accepted September 14, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.