Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men. While tumors initially respond to androgen-deprivation therapy, the standard care for advanced or metastatic disease, tumors eventually recur as castration-resistant prostate cancer. Upregulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) signaling axis drives growth and progression of prostate cancer by promoting proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. Ganitumab (formerly AMG 479) is a fully human antibody that inhibits binding of IGF-1 and IGF-2 to IGF-1R. We evaluated the therapeutic value of ganitumab in several pre-clinical settings including androgen-dependent prostate cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy. Ganitumab inhibited IGF-1 induced phosphorylation of the downstream effector AKT and reduced proliferation of multiple androgen-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Ganitumab inhibited androgen-dependent VCaP xenograft growth and increased tumor doubling time from 2.3±0.4 weeks to 6.4±0.4 weeks. Ganitumab blocked growth of castration-resistant VCaP xenografts for over 11.5 weeks of treatment. In contrast, ganitumab did not have appreciable effects on the castration-resistant CWR-22Rv1 xenograft model. Ganitumab was most potent against VCaP xenografts when combined with complete androgen-deprivation therapy (castration). Tumor volume was reduced by 72% after 4 weeks of treatment and growth suppression was maintained over 16 weeks of treatment. These data suggest that judicious use of ganitumab particularly in conjunction with androgen-deprivation therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer.
- Received June 28, 2012.
- Revision received January 14, 2013.
- Accepted January 17, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013, American Association for Cancer Research.