Elimination of cisplatin resistant (CR) lung cancer cells remains a major obstacle. We have shown that CR tumors have higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and can be exploited for targeted therapy. Here we show that increased secretion of the antioxidant thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) resulted in lowered intracellular TRX1, and contributed to higher ROS in CR tumors in vivo and in vitro. By reconstitutingTRX1 protein in CR cells, we increased sensitivity to cisplatin but decreased sensitivity to elesclomol (ROS inducer). Conversely, decreased TRX1 protein in parental cells reduced the sensitivity to cisplatin but increased sensitivity to elesclomol. CR cells had increased endogenous oxygen consumption and mitochondrial activity but decreased lactic acid production. They also exhibited higher levels of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and fumarase (FH) mRNA which contributed to oxidative metabolism (OXMET) when compared to parental cells. Restoring intracellular TRX1 protein in CR cells resulted in lowering ASS and FH mRNAs which in turn sensitized them to arginine deprivation. Interestingly, CR cells also possessed significantly higher basal levels of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Over-expressing TRX1 lowered ACC and FAS proteins expressions in CR cells. Chemical inhibition and siRNA of ACC resulted in significant cell death in CR compared to parental cells. Conversely, TRX1 over-expressed CR cells resisted to TOFA-induced death. Collectively, lowering TRX1 expression through increased secretion leads CR cells to higher ROS production and increase in dependency on OXMET. These changes raise an intriguing therapeutic potential for future therapy in cisplatin resistant lung cancer.
- Received August 11, 2011.
- Revision received November 28, 2011.
- Accepted January 9, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Association for Cancer Research.