Selinexor, a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound targeting exportin-1, has previously been shown to inhibit melanoma cell growth in vivo. We hypothesized that combining selinexor with antibodies that block or disrupt T-cell checkpoint molecule signaling would exert superior antimelanoma activity. In vitro, selinexor increased PDCD1 and CTLA4 gene expression in leukocytes and induced CD274 gene expression in human melanoma cell lines. Mice bearing syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumors demonstrated a significant reduction in tumor growth rate in response to the combination of selinexor and anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained in B16F10-bearing mice treated with selinexor combined with anti-CTLA4 antibody. Immunophenotypic analysis of splenocytes by flow cytometry revealed that selinexor alone or in combination with anti-PD-L1 antibody significantly increased the frequency of both natural killer cells (P ≤ 0.050) and CD4+ T cells with a Th1 phenotype (P ≤ 0.050). Further experiments indicated that the antitumor effect of selinexor in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy persisted under an alternative dosing schedule but was lost when selinexor was administered daily. These data indicate that the efficacy of selinexor against melanoma may be enhanced by disrupting immune checkpoint activity. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(3); 417–27. ©2017 AACR.
See related article by Tyler et al., p. 428.
This article is featured in Highlights of This Issue, p. 415
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Molecular Cancer Therapeutics Online (http://mct.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received July 28, 2016.
- Revision received December 2, 2016.
- Accepted December 20, 2016.
- ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.